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The Franks discovered Ganelon's betrayal some time ago and keep him in chains until it is time for his trial.Ganelon argues that his action was legitimate revenge, openly proclaimed, not treason.Scholars estimate that the poem was written between approximately 10, and most of the alterations were performed by about 1098.Some favor an earlier dating, because it allows one to say that the poem was inspired by the Castilian campaigns of the 1030s, and that the poem went on to be a major influence in the First Crusade.The epic poem is the first and most outstanding example of the chanson de geste, a literary form that flourished between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries and celebrated the legendary deeds of a hero.

This copy dates between 11 and was written in Anglo-Norman.

They need now to select a messenger to go back to Marsilla's court.

The bold warrior Roland nominates his stepfather Ganelon.

Those who prefer a later dating do so on grounds of the brief references made in the poem to events of the First Crusade.

In one section, Palestine is named Outremer, its Crusader name – but is presented as a Muslim land where there are no Christians.

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